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One of the most fundamental cruces in Islamic scholastic theology (kalam) and philosophy is the problematic nature of human action, free will, and moral agency. This book brings together two critical texts that tackle this crux by a particular issue within this problem, the concept and theory of acquisition (kasb). The kalam tradition explores this concept as to explain how God creates actions and yet leaves moral agents with the capability of choice. The Ash’ari and Maturidi schools of islamic scholastic theology (kalam) maintain different conceptions of this theory, but they both may be described as compatibilist theories of human action. The first text is al-‘Iqd al-Jawhari¸ by Diya al-din Khalid al-Naqshabandi, and the second is Matla’ al-Nayiyreyn by Muhammad b. al-Amir. The commentary and editing is by Said Foudeh.